CROSs border Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (CROSSTEM)

The Cross border Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (CROSSTEM) is a multiregional electricity model of five countries, viz. Austria, Switzerland, Germany, France and Italy.

CROSSTEM regions

The model optimises electricity supply for an exogenously given electricity demand over a long time horizon (to account for long term policy goals and investment decisions) while simultaneously representing sufficient intra-annual detail (i.e., seasonal, weekly and hourly) to account for variations in electricity supply and demand. The model encompasses the future electricity demand, a wide range of electricity generation technologies and related electricity and environmental policies of all the five countries.

Intra-annual details in CROSSTEM

The analytical framework used to develop the CROSSTEM model is the Integrated MARKAL/EFOM System framework (TIMES). TIMES is a perfect foresight, technology rich, cost optimization modelling framework, which identifies the "least-cost" combination of technologies based on their operation characteristics to satisfy given demands under given technical and policy constraints (Loulou, Remne, Kanudia, Lehtila and Goldstein, 2005). The CROSSTEM model is an extension to the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (Kannan and Turton, 2011).

Model inputs

  • Technology characterization (capital and operational costs, efficiency, lifetime, availability)
  • Renewable energy resources potential
  • International energy prices (natural gas, oil, imported electricity, etc.)
  • Taxes/subsidies (CO2 price, transport fuel tax, heating fuel surcharge, feed in tariff, capital subsidy)
  • Policies (e.g. nuclear phase out, emission targets, energy security objectives)
  • Discount rate

Model outputs

  • Annual Electricity generation mix
  • Capacity investment decisions
  • Final energy demand by fuel
  • Hourly electricity demand and supply options
  • CO2 emissions
  • Average cost of electricity
  • Hourly marginal costs of electricity
  • Cross-border electricity trade patterns


Recent applications

  • Pattupara, R. and R. Kannan (2014, 22.05.2014). Alternative low carbon electricity pathways under a European nuclear phase-out - Achievement of Climate goals. Paper presented at the 53rd meeting of the EWGCFM & 2nd International Conference of RCEM, Chania, Greece.
  • Pattupara, R. and R. Kannan (2014, 31.10.2014). Exploring uncertainties in CCS - De-carbonization of the power sector & country-wise opportunities. Paper presented at the 14th IAEE European Energy Conference, Rome, Italy.


  • Loulou, R., U. Remne, A. Kanudia, A. Lehtila and G. Goldstein (2005). Documentation for the TIMES model: Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme.
  • Kannan, R. and H. Turton(2011). Documentation on the Development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E). PSI Bericht Nr. 11-03. Villigen, Switzerland: Paul Scherrer Institute.
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